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“Oversummered” tomato plants ready for second harvest in the Earth Arch

The Early Girl tomato plants made it through one of the hottest summers yet, and have set a second crop of about 70 fruit in the hottest fall ever. A 122 year old record fell as well, along with witnessing the latest ever 90+ degree in November, recorded on November 27th. The combination of Solexx, Aluminet and hydrophobic row cover helped control the effects of sunburn, evaporation and transpiration in raised beds on a south facing wall. Preparations are being made to complete the Solexx arch cover and install framing on the southern opening – as colder weather is on the horizon.

 

 

There are times in my life  a citizen scientist when I wonder if the prototype arch is robust enough to meet the challenge I set for it: making it possible to grow healthy vegetables through extreme conditions, working with the forces of evaporation and transpiration.

My philosophy is hopeful, akin to that of a practitioner of Aikido, expressing gratitude for the universe, our ancestors, fellow human beings, and the realm of nature. I sought out martial arts that stressed unarmed grappling techniques: Jujutsu first, and its derivative Aikido later. This was a response to my labored breathing, a consequence of my young life lived in fear of my father, and of bullies I encountered at school. The word Jujutsu can be broken down into two parts. “Ju” is a concept. The idea behind this meaning of Ju is “to be gentle”, “to give way”, “to yield”, “to blend”, “to move out of harm’s way”. “Jutsu” is the principle or “the action” part of Ju-Jutsu. In Japanese this word means science or art.[9]

The science and art of gardening in extreme heat and dry conditions involves grappling with the ways in which plants breath and lose moisture.

Rather than use fossil fuel power to create cool conditions, instead I look to use the natural exhalation of the plants to cool themselves. This is done by containing the rate of evaporation, and keeping the evaporative process close to the bodies of the plants. This has evolved into a layered approach that holds water close in the soil, holds the evaporation and transpiration of the water close to the ground, and employs shade cloth and row covers to hold temperatures down to or below 86˚ F. – that point where plants experience stress as the loss of water through transpiration exceeds the water available from the soil. These elements of heat, water, soil and breath (air) are blended with the gentle restrictions of the arch structure, just as the canopy of a tree provides similar conditions. The results I hoped for would be tested by the Summer of 2017 in Tucson, Arizona: a time of record setting heat.

Early on in my first prototype Nurse Tree Arch I used an Arduino controlled set of ground and air sensors taking both temperature and humidity readings. Today in the Earth Arch I use calibrated SensorPush cubes placed in sensor shields of my making, sometimes at just above ground level (and below understory canopy) and other Meade sensors at five feet in shaded patios near my arch structures. These are cross-referenced to National Weather Service temperature and humidity reported at Tucson’s Airport. I use a hand-held laser infrared thermometer for gathering surface soil temperatures.

In January, 2017 I completed the arch frame on the Earth Arch. I completed four Solexx panels for the west face of the arch, and in April I added a 50% weave of Aluminet shade cloth on the east face. Keep in mind that the Earth Arch extends out 8 feet from the south facing wall of a 1930’s era concrete block ranch garage and storage building. This face of the building receives direct sun for 8-9 hours a day. Outside temperatures recorded by the SensorPush instruments are higher than airport temps as a result.

On April 26th, 2017, with temperatures expected to reach 100˚ within a week, I ran an experiment using hydrophobic row cloth as a cover for a bed of Parris Island Cos lettuce, Oak Leaf Loose leaf lettuce, and Arugula. I was very pleased with the production of lettuce, given that desert adapted varieties of lettuce are typically stressed and bolting at this point in the season. On June 6th at 4 pm, SensorPush and Meade instruments measured air temperatures just above ground level under the row cover, outside the row cover but still inside the cover of Solexx and Aluminet, and outside the arch. I was surprised how much difference I got with the several layers of cover.

  • Outside at five feet under porch T = 106˚ H = 5%
  • Inside Earth Arch cover of Solexx (west) and 50% Aluminet (East) T = 95.6˚ H = 26%
  • Inside Earth Arch cover and under the hydrophobic row cover T = 90.1˚ H = 57.2%

That is a difference of 16˚ where it matters most – on and near the ground where the roots and plant leaves are. I am able to measure 5-8 degree differences in temperature attributable to the 50%-75% Aluminet. This suggests that the 16˚ difference is at least half a contribution of plant and soil evaporation cooling both mediums. In addition we know that removal of Biomass (the leaves and stems of living plants) raises temperatures due to both loss of shade and transpiration-based cooling in these hybrid green to screen houses (see blog report on June 28, 2013 spider-mite infestation that removed cucumber from south face of Prototype #1 – resulting in a 6˚-8˚ rise in ground temperatures the next day).

On June 14th, 2017 I placed an additional layer of 75% weave Aluminet over the entire arch. This was in preparation for advertised temperatures of 105˚ to 116˚ F. for the week to come. The month of June, 2017 was the hottest June on record. The average high of 105.3˚ was 5˚ above normal. The average temperature of 89.5 set the all-time record. Six days were 110˚ or higher, tied for 4th most in year. The 116˚ recorded on June 20th tied for 2nd hottest day ever, just one degree below the all time record of 117˚.

On June 20th, that 116˚ record for the day, The SensorPush and Meade instruments recorded air temperature and humidity levels inside and outside the Earth Arch at 3 pm.

  • Outside temperature at airport = 116˚
  • Outside at 3 feet over garden bed near to wall (a heat source) T= 120.6, H=9.9%
  • Inside Earth Arch covered with 75% Aluminet T=102.4˚ H=26.3% (a difference of 13.6˚ from the airport, and 18.2˚ from the SensorPush instrument next to the Cistern.)

On June 21st, with a recorded high at the airport of 115˚, I tested ground temperatures with a hand-held infrared thermometer. This is what I found:

  • Ground temp outside the Earth Arch = 158˚
  • Ground temp inside = 84˚-90˚ (difference from outside of 68˚ to 74˚)
  • Ground temp under row cover = 76˚ (difference from outside of 82˚)

What’s happening here?

I lack any instrumented data on soil moisture. What I do know is that I apply 15 gallons of water to the 40 square feet of soil in beds that are 24 inches deep over a 12 inch deep bed of cottonwood and other dead woods some harvested on site. These beds have non permeable earthcrete and ferroconcrete walls with loamy sand soil at the base. They create a heat bank, slow to heat during the day, and radiating heat at night. The beds are always moist at 6 inches and often at the surface at well. Tomatoes are deep rooting broad leafed plants that sweat profusely. I’ve chosen both hybrid (Early Girl and Summerset) and heirlooom varieties (Punta Banda, Nichols). The deep composted soil, along with a soil temperature that is maintained in the mid-80˚s, have encouraged rapid growth of biomass. The cover created by Solexx, which scatters the intense radiation of the afternoon sun is complemented by Aluminet, which reflects heat away from the beds. This protects the beneficial effects of the plant canopy and transpiration, which create an evaporative cooling environment, and the open weave of the covering allows breathing and discourages fungal and other wet-environment problems, while also reducing evaporation away from the beds.

 

Work on the Entry Arch for Rod and Carol began in October with a design review and client approvals. This second Entry Arch Prototype focused on sun and rain proofing the exterior grade plywood using boat builder techniques. We used Smiths expoxy sealer with multiple coats of primer and acrylic. Rod helped with the additional labor that this required, as well as time needed for curing. We suffered delays from illness, weather, and competing commitments. The fun part is now in process: assembling the finished components against the east wall of the house in Tucson, AZ. Soon the blazing sun and wickedly wet monsoon season will test this prototype. Time will tell the story.

7-17-17 R&CEntryArchFinalTouches

Build out of the Earth Arch continues, a new fan installed in the first prototype, data gathering continues,

and a client’s Entry Arch is assembled…

One of the design principles for Nurse Tree Design is to keep electrical use to a minimum in cooling and heating the arch. I’m working on an evaporative cooling system with a 12 volt variable speed fan powered by a deep discharge battery. The battery will be charged by a 100 Watt Polycrystalline Solar Panel. These pictures show the development process thus far. Next step will be to build the housing for the evaporative medium and polytube water delivery system, which will be connected to the drip irrigation system.

The journey of Dale’s arch from initiation to completion was long (September 27th 2015 proposal, April 25th 2016 completion). The design and creation of pattern files for CNC milling took until January to submit. Errors in the initial files further delayed assembly of the components. New standards for marine grade epoxy sealer and varnish required long lead times for procurement and additional time for applying the finishes. A new approach to the end cap framing was also time consuming. However, Dale is pleased with the result, as am I.

The Nurse Tree Entry Arch is designed to cover a raised bed outside a patio door. This prototype is placed outside the entrance to the original Nurse Tree Arch, acting as an annex that expands the space available for growing.

Friends of the Nurse Tree Arch

I asked my advisors to help me understand why the Nurse Tree Arch Hatchfund campaign was not being used. Based on the feedback I received from them, I am asking this of you: DON’T CONTRIBUTE to the Nurse Tree Arch through the Hatchfund platform.

I missed an important, and devilish detail: IF YOUR PROJECT DOES NOT SUCCESSFULLY FUND, DONORS WILL NOT RECEIVE REFUNDS. See the rest of the policy in which this is embedded below.

3. All donors receive a tax receipt IMMEDIATELY after they make their donation online. If your project does not successfully fund, donors will not receive refunds. However, please be assured that they have already received their tax receipt. Also, remember that only 5% of donations go to unfunded projects.

This is not a fair practice, and I cannot support it. So please do not give Hatchfund any money.

I will work with Drachman Montessori to find out how you can donate directly to them in support of their arch construction. I am putting my other marketing fundraising goals on hold.

I apologize for not catching this detail sooner. Repeated calls to the Hatchfund representative, Dillon Nicholson, have not been returned.

Sincerely,

Michael Ray

Components were milled on Tuesday October 13, picked up on Wednesday, released from the plywood sheet and sanded on Thursday and Friday, and stained on Saturday. First assembly happened at the festival site Sunday morning. None of this would have happened without the help of my team: Acacia Alder, Gayle McGuire-Solexx distributor, Gary Sullivan, Gary French of CNCRoutingAZ, Javier Lopez, Kristen Bury and students from Drachman Montessori school. As usual, people were curious about the Aluminet sunscreen. Festival organizer’s placed our booth against a west-facing wall outside. Air temperatures were in the high 80’s. It was the perfect place to demonstrate the cooling effect of this innovative aluminized polymer sunshade material. We got new names on our mailing list, and may have a qualified buyer for an Entry Arch. Also a high point: teaching the students how to use the battery-powered drill as we disassembled the arch.

The support crew under the Entry Arch

The support crew under the Entry Arch

10-18-15GaryandMichaelliftingEntryArch

Gary Sullivan and Michael lift the arch frame into place above the base bed.

This is the current state of our display. Our crowdfunding campaign will help upgrade display materials.

This is the current state of our display. Our crowdfunding campaign will help upgrade display materials.

It is a small miracle that I am able to design in 3D on my 2008 Macbook. I use a program called Sketchup Pro, which will export images in a program language called .dwg – from which the computer controlled router at CNCRoutingAZ in Chandler will do its thing on a sheet of exterior-grade 3/4 inch plywood. It took me about 40 hours of intense work the past two weeks to get the designs for both the Entry Arch and the Full Arch with 37″ sidewalls ready for production. If I get milled components in time to do some finishing work I will be assembling the Entry Arch for show at the Envision Tucson Sustainable Festival on October 18th. After that I am installing the Full Arch over a hugelkultur bed belonging to Dale and Julie in a midtown home in Tucson. See images below.

10-2-15PatioEntryArchforLimberlost  Dale Turner Bed w Hardibacker sidewalls